并列邏輯是行文常見的一種邏輯結構，也是托福閱讀易設置考點的地方。比如我們常見的and,or ,both, either …or, except, beyond, not only…but also, moreover等等都可以幫助我們識別并列。本文旨在介紹并列邏輯中的另一種常見現象，即抽象名詞。通過介紹什么是抽象名詞，以及其如何幫助我們識別邏輯，以幫助大家更準確解題。
抽象名詞一般都是需要解釋的詞類，很多時候行文都會對抽象名詞進行解釋，比如大家比較熟悉的同位語從句。常見的抽象名詞有：fact, result, consequence, benefit, improvement, possibility, advantage, disadvantage, fact, benefit, evidence, risk, advice, doubt, news, conclusion, view, likelihood, idea等。當出現以上名詞復數時，行文小至段落，大至整篇文章多會呈現并列結構，把握好這一點可以幫助我們快速讀懂文章結構，更好地理解文章并準確解題。下面以題為例。
The calling or singing plays an important role in their reproduction-specifically, in helping individuals find and select mates. Sound has many advantages as a communication signal. When sounds are broadcast, the auditory receptors do not need to be in a particular orientation relative to the sound source in order to receive stimulation. Loud songs, particularly those made by choruses of frogs calling together, can travel long distances and thus attract distant frogs. Sounds travel around large obstacles. These advantages are not found in the visual modality, where the receiver must be attentive and have its visual receptor orientated in the correct direction. Further, most frogs and toads breed at night, when light levels are low but sounds can be easily localized. We can conclude that auditory signals are used by frogs and toads because they can be effective over long distances at night.
1. According to paragraph1, all of the following are mentioned as true of the mating calls of frogs EXCEPT:
A. They can reach frogs in far-off locations.
B. They are not blocked by objects of substantial size.
C. They are often combined with nonauditory signals.
D. They can be received without the frog’s needing to orient itself toward the direction of the signal.
解析：通過Sound has many advantages as a communication signal.我們很容易發現抽象名詞復數advantages,所以整段會并列講聲音的好處；后文When...Sounds travel around large obstacles. 并列講了3個好處。下一句These advantages印證了并列結構。本道題是取非題，考并列信息，讀懂結構后只需要一一對應三個好處即可解題。答案選C。